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What is Super Absorbent Polymer
2015-06-25 10:38:55

Superabsorbent (Super Absorbent Polymer, SAP) is a new type of functional polymer materials. It has absorbed more than its own weight of hundreds to thousands of times higher water absorption features, and excellent water retention properties, once the swelling has become hydrogels, even if it is difficult to put the pressurized water is separated. Therefore, it has a wide range of applications in various areas of personal hygiene products, industrial and agricultural production, civil construction.
Superabsorbent is a class of molecules having a hydrophilic group and a crosslinked structure, first proposed by Fanta such as the use of starch graft polyacrylonitrile obtained by the saponification. Press materials division, starch-based (graft, carboxymethylation, etc.), cellulose-based (carboxymethylation, graft, etc.), synthetic polymer type (polyacrylate, a polyvinyl alcohol, polyethylene oxide vinyl, etc.) categories. Wherein the polyacrylate super absorbent resin is compared starch and cellulose-based system, with low production cost, simple process, high production efficiency, strong water absorption capacity, long shelf life and other advantages, become a research focus in the field.
The world production of super absorbent resin, polyacrylic accounted for 80%. Superabsorbent generally contain a polymer electrolyte hydrophilic groups and cross-linked structure. Before absorbing polymer chains wrapped around each other closer together, cross-linked into a network structure with each other, so as to fasten on the whole. Upon contact with water, the water molecules by capillary action and diffusion penetrate into the resin, the ionizable group chain ionized water. Because the chain with the electrostatic repulsion between ions leaving the polymer chain stretch to swell. Since the electrically neutral requirements counter-ions can not migrate to resin exterior, ion concentration difference between the external solution within the resin forming reverse osmotic pressure. Under the action of reverse osmotic pressure water further into the resin to form a hydrogel. At the same time, the resin itself reticulate structure and hydrogen bonding, and limit the unlimited expansion of the gel. When water containing a small amount of salt, anti-osmotic pressure, and because of the shielding effect of counter-ions, the polymer chain contraction, leading to greatly reduced water absorption capacity of the resin. Typically, high-absorbent polymer absorption capacity of 0.9% NaCl solution only in deionized water about 1/10. - Absorption and water are the two sides of an issue, and so this was discussed thermodynamics. At a certain temperature and pressure, high water-absorbent resin can spontaneously absorb water, water enters the resin, so that the whole system of free enthalpy decrease until equilibrium. Flow escape from the resin, the free enthalpy rise, is not conducive to a stable system. Differential thermal analysis showed that high absorption of water-absorbent resin above 150 ° C at 50% is still enclosed in the gel network. Therefore, even if pressure is applied at room temperature, water will not escape from the high water-absorbent resin, which is the thermodynamic properties of super absorbent resin decision.
Due to the high water-absorbent sodium polyacrylate resin absorption capacity is large, and has excellent water retention, so as a conservation agent in agriculture, forestry wide range of applications. If a small amount of super absorbent sodium polyacrylate in the soil, can improve some beans and pea germination drought resistance, so the soil permeability enhancement. Further, since the hydrophilic and excellent anti-fog and anti-condensation properties of super absorbent resin, so can be used as new packaging materials. The use of the unique properties of super absorbent polymer packaging films made effective to keep food fresh. Adding a small amount of super absorbent polymer used in cosmetics, but also to make the emulsion viscosity, it is an ideal thickener. The use of high water absorption is not only water-absorbing polymer or an organic solvent suction features in the industry but also as a dehydrating agent.
Due to the high water-absorbent polymer is non-toxic, non-irritating to humans, no side effects, does not cause blood coagulation, etc., in recent years, it has been widely used in the medical field. For example, for a large water content and comfortable to use topical ointment; production can absorb surgery and trauma, bleeding and secretions, and prevent suppurative bandage and cotton; and pharmaceutical manufacturing to make water and microorganisms can not pass through by anti- artificial skin and other infectious.
With the development of science and technology, environmental protection has been more and more people's attention. If the super absorbent polymer is loaded into a water-soluble bag, and the bag was immersed in the water, after the bag is dissolved, super absorbent polymer can rapidly absorb liquid leaving the sewage solidified.
In the electronics industry, high water-absorbing polymers are also used as a humidity sensor, moisture measuring sensors and leakage detectors and so on. High water-absorbing polymers can be used as heavy metal ion adsorbent and oil absorption materials.
In short, the super absorbent polymer is a very versatile polymer materials, vigorously develop high-absorbent polymer resin has a huge market potential. In the case of this year's drought in most parts of northern China, and how to further promote the use of high-absorbent polymer, it is placed in front of the agricultural and forestry scientists an urgent task. In the western development strategy implementation process at work in the soil, vigorously develop a variety of practical features and applications of superabsorbent polymers, have real potential social and economic benefits.

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