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The main application of polyacrylamide
Polyacrylamide is a polymer formed from acrylamide subunits. Can be synthesized as a simple linear structure or crosslinked chain, typically using N, N'-methylenebisacrylamide. Polyacrylamide is nontoxic. In crosslinked form, the possibility that the monomer is present is further reduced. It is highly absorbent of water, forming a soft gel when hydrated, used in applications such as polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and in the manufacture of soft contact lenses. In straight chain form, which is also used as a thickener and suspending agent. More recently, it has been used as a filling agent for subdermal facial cosmetic surgery.
Polyacrylamide is mainly used as flocculate solids in a liquid. This process applies to the treatment of wastewater and processes such as papermaking. Most polyacrylamide is provided in liquid form. Is subdivided as liquid and polymer emulsion solution. Although these products are often called 'polyacrylamide', many of them are in fact copolymers of acrylamide and one or more other chemical species, such as an acrylic acid or a salt thereof. The main consequence of this is to give the ‘modification’ of a particular polymer ionic character.
Another common use of polyacrylamide and its derivatives are subsurface applications such as enhanced oil recovery. High viscosity aqueous solutions can be generated with low concentrations of polyacrylamide polymers, and these can be injected to improve the economics of conventional water injection.
It has also been announced as a soil conditioner in the 1950s, which is said to be a ’unique formulation of PAM‘. It is often used for horticultural and agricultural use under trade names such as Broadleaf P4, surf-Gel and so on. The anionic form cross-linked polyacrylamide is frequently used as a soil conditioner on agricultural land and works to control erosion in order to protect the water quality of nearby rivers and streams.
The polymer is also used to make toys Gro-beast, which expand when placed in water, such as test tube aliens. Similarly, the absorbent properties of a copolymer thereof can be used as an additive in the powder-body.
The ionic form polyacrylamide found an important role in the industry of potable water. Trivalent metal salts such as ferric chloride and aluminum chloride are bridged by the long polymer chains of polyacrylamide. This results in a significant improvement in the rate of flocculation. This allows water treatment plants to greatly improve the removal of total organic content of raw water.
Polyacrylamide is often used in molecular biology applications as a medium for electrophoresis of proteins and nucleic acids in a technique known as PAGE.