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The impact of the acrylamide on health
The acrylamide is produced industrially for use in products such as plastics, mortars, water treatment products and cosmetics. It is also present in cigarette smoke and has been reported to cause cancer in animals in studies where they were exposed to very high doses. Neurological effect is also reported in people with high occupational exposure to the substance.
Although the department concerned has not yet determined the exact impact on public health, it is conducting research to determine whether acrylamide in food is a potential human health risk, given that the levels found in foods are lower than those associated with occupational hazards.
The acrylamide is mainly produced in plant foods (such as potato, cereal or coffee) is not formed, or is at lower levels in dairy products, meat and fish. There seems to be present in raw foods and is present at low or undetectable in foods cooked at boiling temperatures levels.
In 2002, the researchers of the Swedish Food Administration and Stockholm University reported the discovery of acrylamide in a variety of fried foods and baked. The swedish research indicated that the formation of acrylamide as a byproduct is particularly associated with cooking processes (frying, roasting, baking) high temperatures (above 129 ° C or 248 ° F) of carbohydrate foods due to a chemical reaction between the amino acid asparagine and certain sugars, which are found naturally in foods. Similar findings have been reported by researchers from countries like Norway, UK, Germany, Canada, Japan, Korea and Switzerland.
There are doubts about the impact of acrylamide in public health. The population has been exposed to acrylamide-containing foods for many years. To assess the risk associated with consumption of acrylamide in foods is needed about how acrylamide is formed in the same concentrations that can reach the carcinogenic potential and likelihood of causing mutations and neurotoxic effects.
Initial tests on animals indicate that exposure to acrylamide poses risks for various cancers, however evidence from human studies is still incomplete. The National Toxicology Program of the United States and the International Agency for Research on Cancer indicate that it is 'possible human carcinogen' by classifying in group 2A based on studies in laboratory animals exposed to drinking water containing acrylamide. Toxicological studies have demonstrated differences in absorption rates of acrylamide in humans and animals.
A series of case-control studies have investigated the relationship between intake of acrylamide and risk of cancer of oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, larynx, intestine, kidney, breast and ovary. In these studies an increase in tumors associated with acrylamide intake was found.
Although the Environmental Protection Agency of the United States regulates acrylamide in drinking water, and the Food and Drug Administration of the United States residual amount in a variety of materials in contact with food, there are currently no guidelines governing their presence in them.