Description of Polyacrylamide - CHINAFLOC
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Description of Polyacrylamide
2015-06-18 09:05:26
  Polyacrylamide is acrylamide homopolymers or copolymers with other monomers in the polymer is referred to, polyacrylamide is one of the most widely used water-soluble polymer species. Polyacrylamide widely used in oil exploration, paper, water treatment, textile, medicine, agriculture and other industries. According to statistics, the total production of polyacrylamide 37% for wastewater treatment, 27% for the oil industry, 18% for the paper industry.
   Polyacrylamide is shortly called PAM, is a linear polymer, a water-soluble polymer in an amount of one application of a wide range of species, polyacrylamide, and it can be used as an effective biological flocculants, thickeners , paper enhancer, and a liquid drag reduction agents, widely used in water treatment, paper, petroleum, coal, ore treatment, geology, textile, construction and other departments.
   By the appearance, it can be divided into: jelly (PAM) and particulate polyacrylamide (PAM) PAM
   By the ion it can be divided into: cation (CPAM) polyacrylamide, anionic (APAM) polyacrylamide, nonionic (NPAM) polyacrylamide, amphoteric ion (ACPAM) polyacrylamide.
   Polyacrylamide as a white powder, a density of 1.320g / cm. (23 ℃), a glass transition temperature of 188 ℃, softening temperature near 210 ℃, containing a small amount of water when the general method of drying. It will quickly absorb moisture from the environment dry. Isolated by lyophilization homopolymers are soft white amorphous solid, but when precipitated from solution, and after drying was partially transparent glassy solid. Completely dried (PAM) Polyacrylamide brittle white solid. Product polyacrylamide powder is usually dried under conditions of moderate, generally water content of from 5% to 15%. Cast polymer film was prepared on a glass plate, it is clear, hard, brittle solids.
  Since the molecular chain containing polyacrylamide amide groups, some have ionic groups, so its distinguishing feature is a hydrophilic high, much higher than most other water-soluble polymer hydrophilic. It easily adsorbs moisture and retain moisture, it has strong moisture retention during drying, and then dried with a strong water absorption and water absorption increases with the ionic derivative increases.
  Polyacrylamide various percentages can be dissolved in water, especially when the concentration is higher than '70% more that are water-soluble polymers. Molecular Weight does not seem to affect the solubility of water, but the high molecular weight polymer at concentrations exceeding 10% will form a gel-like structure. This is due to the formation of intermolecular hydrogen bonds. (PAM) polyacrylamide insoluble in most organic solvents, such as methanol, ethanol, acetone, ether, aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. Except for a few polar organic solvent, such as acetic acid, acrylic acid, chloroacetic acid, ethylene glycol, glycerol, molten urea and formamide. However, the limited solubility of these organic solvents, often require heating, or of little value. Further soluble formamide, hydrazine, ethylene glycol, a solvent such as morpholine. Because the industry in the form of an aqueous solution applications.
   Flocculation; PAM allows suspended material by charge neutralization, bridge adsorption, since flocculation.
   Adhesion: through mechanical, physical, chemical effect, from the stick and action.
   Reduction in resistance: PAM can effectively reduce fluid friction, water with traces of PAM can drop resistance 50-80%.
   Thickening: PAM have a thickening effect in neutral and acidic conditions, when the PH value is greater than 10 PAM easy hydrolysis, was half a mesh structure, thickening more obvious.
   Flocculation principle: PAM used for flocculation, with the kind of floc surface properties, especially dynamic electromechanical, PH value of the viscosity, turbidity and suspension related to the particle surface zeta potential, particle surface polymerization reasons to join oppositely charged PAM, make the move to reduce the potential and cohesion.
   Adsorption bridging: PAM molecular chain immobilized on the surface of different particles, forming a bridge between the polymer particles, the particles form aggregates and settle.
   Adsorption: various polar groups adsorbed particles PAM molecule.
   Enhancement: PAM molecular chain and dispersed by a variety of mechanical, physical, chemical and so on, will be involved with the dispersed phase to form a network, which in turn has enhanced the role.
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