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1. The practical characteristics of the product
1.1. The adhesiveness: It has the bonding effect by the mechanical method, the physical method and the chemical method etc.
1.2 The flocculation: The PAM can achieve the flocculation effect by making the charge neutralization and the bridging adsorption etc.
1.3 The thickening: The PAM has the thickening effect both in the neutral and in the acid conditions, when the PH value is above 10, the PAM is easily hydrolyzed, with a semi reticulated structure, the thickening effect is more obvious.
1.4. The drag reduction effect: The PAM can effectively reduce the fluid friction resistance, adding trace PAM can achieve the drag reduction of 50% ~ 60%.
2. The usage of the product
2.1 In the water treatment
The usage of the PAM in the water treatment industry mainly includes three fields: the treatment of the raw water, the treatment of the sewage and the treatment of the industrial waste water. In the treatment of the raw water, the PAM is used with the active carbon for the flocculation and the clarification to the suspending particles in the domestic waste water; in the treatment of the sewage, the PAM is used for the dewatering of the sludge; in the treatment of the industrial waste water, the PAM is mainly used as the additive agent.
In the treatment of the raw water, the organic flocculating agent PAM is used to replace the inorganic flocculating agent, the purification capability can be improved more than 20%, even without the reconstruct the settlement pool. Therefore, in most big sized and medium sized cities when there is a shortage of the water supply or the water quality is poor, the PAM will be used as the complementary agent in the treatment of the raw water. In the treatment of the industrial waste water, especially for the waste water with the coarse suspending particles, with the high concentration, with the particles which have the positive charge, and with the neutral or alkaline PH value, such as the sewage, the waste water from the steel works, from the electroplating plant, from the metallurgy and from the coal washing, the PAM can achieve the best effect in the treatment. In the treatment of the domestic sewage, the use of the PAM can increase the use rate of the water reuse cycle.
2.2 In the oil drilling field
In the oil exploitation, the PAM is mainly used for the drilling mud material and for the increase of the production rate. It is widely used in the drilling, the completion, the cementing, the fracturing and the EOR (enhanced oil recovery) operations in the oil field; it has the functions such as the viscosity increase, the less filtration loss, the flow regulation, the gelling, the shunt and the profile adjustment etc. At present, the oil exploitation in our country has entered the post stage, in order to improve the oil recovery rate, we mainly promote the polymer flooding method and the three element composite flooding technology. By means of the injection of the PAM aqueous solution, the oil water flow ratio will be improved, and the oil content in the produced crude oil is increased. At the moment, the PAM application in the oil field is not popular in other countries, but due to the special geological conditions in China, Daqing oil field and Shengli oil field has begun to use the polymer flooding technology extensively.
2.3. In the paper making field
The PAM is widely used in the paper making field as the retention agent, the filtration aid and the evenness agent etc. Its role is to improve the quality of the paper product, to improve the dewatering performance of the pulp, to increase the retention rate of the fine fibers and the fillers, to reduce the consumption of the raw materials and to reduce the pollution to the environment etc.
The PAM application effect in the paper making depends on its average molecular weight, the ionic properties, the ionic strength and the activity of its copolymers. The nonionic PAM is mainly used to improve the filtration of the paper pulp, to increase the dry strength of the paper product, and to improve the retention rate of the fibers and the filler. The anionic PAM copolymer is mainly used as the dry and wet reinforcing agent and the retention agent of the paper product. The cationic PAM copolymer is mainly used for the treatment of the waste water from the paper making process, and to improve the filtration effect, besides, it also has good effect to improve the filler retention rate. Additionally, PAM is also used in the treatment of the paper making waste water and the recovery of the fibers.
2.4. In the textile field
In the textile industry, the PAM is used as the fabric sizing agent and the finishing agent in the after treatment process, it can generate the smooth, wrinkle free and mold resistant protective coating. The specific absorbent characteristics of the PAM can help reduce the broken rate in the spun yarn process. The PAM can prevent the fabric from the electrostatic in the after treatment process along with its flame retardant. Using as the printing and dyeing auxiliaries, the PAM can make the high adhesion fastness and the higher brightness degree, it can also be used as the silicon polymer stabilizer in the bleaching process. Besides, the PAM can also be used for the efficient purification of the waste water in the textile printing and dyeing.