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3.3 The nonionic PAM
3.3.1 The nonionic PAM is mainly used as the flocculant
Because the molecular chains of the anionic PAM contain a certain amount of the polar group which can absorb the suspending solid particles in the water, which will bridge the particles and form the larger floc properties, the PAM can accelerate the settlement of the suspending particles, therefore, it has the obvious effects in speeding up the clarification of the solution and in promoting the filtration etc. It is widely used in the treatment of the chemical waste water and waste liquid, and the municipal sewage, especially when the sewage is acidic, this type of flocculant is mostly suitable. It can also be used together with the inorganic flocculant like the polyaluminium (PAC) inorganic salt.
3.3.2 The PAM is used in the petroleum industry, in the oil exploitation, in the drilling mud, and in the treatment of the waste mud, it can be used to prevent the water channeling, to reduce the friction and to improve the oil recovery rate. It has been widely used in the EOR operation (Enhanced Oil Recovery).
3.3.3 The PAM is used as the textile sizing agent, it can help to achieve the better stability of the slurry performance, the less pulp loss, the lower fabric breakage rate and the cleaner and smoother cloth etc.
3.3.4 In the paper making industry, the PAM is used to improve the retention rate of the fillers and the pigment, which is to reduce the loss of the raw materials and to reduce the pollution to the environment. The PAM can also to improve the strength of the paper including the dry strength and the wet strength. Besides, the use of the PAM can also improve the paper tearing rate and the porous rate, which can improve the optical performance and the printing performance. The PAM could be used in the packaging paper to the foodstuff and the tea.
3.3.5 The PAM can be used in other industries. In the foodstuff industry, it is used to the clarification of the cane juice and the sugar floatation extraction in the cane sugar production and in the beet sugar production; it is used in the liquid flocculation industry of the enzyme preparation fermentation. It is used in the recovery of the protein feed, the recovered protein powder has the stable quality and good performance, and has no adverse effect to the chicken survival rate increase, the weight increase and the egg laying rate. The PAM is also widely used in many other fields such as the synthetic resin coating, the construction grouting materials, the water plugging, the building material industry, the improvement to the concrete quality, the adhesives to the construction industry, the caulking and repair water shutoff agent, the soil improvement agent, the electroplating industry, the printing and dyeing industry etc.
4. The Amphoteric Ion PAM
Because the molecules of the amphoteric ion PAM contains the cation redical and anionic redical, the amphoteric ion PAM figures a more outstanding performance besides the general characteristics of the cationic flocculant. This type of flocculant can be used in a wider range of the PH value, it can achieve the higher water filtering rate and the lower filter cake moisture content. It can be used for the acid leaching ore and the recovery of the valuable metals fromt eh acidic catalyst containing metal. It can work as the oil blending water plugging agent, along with the use the crosslinking agent, the stabilizer and the coagulant agent to generate the plugging agent of the high strength polymeric gel and the resin gel, which could block the formation of the pores and cracks, and adjust the ratio by means of the attachment and the physical blockage effect, it can control the gel time to adapt to the different geological conditions. It can be used in the treatment of various oil, organic matter, inorganic matter, sewage and complex waste water etc. It can be used in the treatment of the sewage system of variable PH value for the sludge dewatering process. It can also be used as the paper making additives.
4. The usage method
4.1 The dissolving method
Before the practical usage, the solid granule PAM should be dissolving into 1‰ ~ 5‰ aqueous solution, in order for the prompt efficiency of the PAM. During the dissolving, it should adopt the progressive adding method, put the PAM granule into the water slowly, make it disperse into the water evenly until it is completely dissolved.
4.2 The adding of the solution
Usually the aqueous solution is added at about 0.5% ~ 1% concentration, however, under the situation of high concentration and high viscosity of the suspension, it is recommended to dilute the aqueous solution further to 0.1‰, which will facilitate the mixing and promoting the full effect of the PAM.
4.3 The cationic PAM have lower molecular weight than the anionic PAM, so the viscosity of the cationic Pam is also weaker than the anionic PAM. Therefore, the concentration ratio standard of the cationic PAM and the nonionic PAM should be slightly higher than the anionic PAM, the recommended concentration is 5‰ ~ 1%. It depends on the practical situation, the concentration could also be adjusted by the water concentration, lower concentration for the higher turbidity, while for the lower turbidity, the concentration could be appropriately increased.
5.1 The aqueous solution of the PAM should be made up in the enamel case, the galvanized steel case, the aluminum case or in the plastic barrel. It is not allowed to use the steel container for the making up and the storage.
5.2 During the dissolving, the PAM granule should be added evenly and slowly into the dissolving measures which are equipped with the stirring and heating devices, the knot solid situation should be avoided. The solution should be made under the appropriate temperature and should avoid the long time and severe mechanical shear. The recommended stirring speed is 60 ~ 200 rpm, otherwise it will result in the degradation fo the polymer and will influence the application effect.
5.3 The PAM aqueous solution should be made up by instant use, if the aqueous solution is put for long time, its performance will be gradually reduced according to the water quality situation.
5.4 After the flocculant aqueous solution is put into the suspension, the long time severe stirring of the suspension will destroy the formed flocs.