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2.5. In the other fields
In the mining process and the coal washing fields, the application with the PAM as the coagulant can help to promote the recovery of the solid particles in the waste water and then clarify the water, at the same time the recovery of the useful solid particles can help to avoid the pollution to the environment.
In the sugar industry, the PAM can accelerate the sinking of the particles in the sugar cane juice, promote the filtration and improve the clearness filtration degree.
In the breeding industry, the PAM can used to improve the water quality, to increase the light transmission properties of the water, and to improve the water photosynthesis.
IN the medical industry, the Pam can be used as the flocculant in the separation of the antibiotics, as the tablet forming adhesive and as the clarifying agent to the treatment of the process waster water.
In the construction material industry, the PAM can be used as the thickening dispersant to the paints, as the coolant for the stone sawing and as the bonding agent to the ceramic etc.
In the agriculture, the PAM as a high water absorbent material can be used as the soil moisturizing agent and the seed planting agent etc.
In the construction industry, the PAM can enhance the hardness of the gypsum and the cement, and accelerate the dehydration rate of the asbestos cement etc.
Besides, the PAM can also be sued as the proactive coatings to the natural or the synthetic leather, and the additives to the granulation of the inorganic fertilizer etc.
3. The scope of the applications of the PAM
Because the molecular functional groups are different, the scopes of the applications are also different between the anionic PAM, the cationic PAM, the nonionic PAM and the zwitterionic PAM.
3.1 The anionic PAM
3.1.1 The anionic PAM is applicable to the suspending coarse particles, the high concentration waste water with the particles with the positive charge and the sewage of the neutral or the alkaline PH value. Because the molecular chains of the anionic PAM contain a certain amount of the polar group which can absorb the suspending solid particles in the water, which will bridge the particles and form the larger floc properties, the PAM can accelerate the settlement of the suspending particles, therefore, it has the obvious effects in speeding up the clarification of the solution and in promoting the filtration etc. The PAM is widely used in the treatment of the waste water and the waste liquid in the chemical industry, in the treatment of the municipal sewage, in the tap water industry, in the purification of the high turbidity water, in the waste water settlement and flocculation, in the waste water treatment of the coal washing, the mineral dressing, the metallurgy, the iron and steel industry, the zinc and aluminum industry and the electronic industry etc.
3.1.2 The PAM is used in the petroleum industry, in the oil exploitation, in the drilling mud, and in the treatment of the waste mud, it can be used to prevent the water channeling, to reduce the friction and to improve the oil recovery rate. It has been widely used in the EOR operation (Enhanced Oil Recovery).
3.1.3 The PAM is used as the textile sizing agent, it can help to achieve the better stability of the slurry performance, the less pulp loss, the lower fabric breakage rate and the cleaner and smoother cloth etc.
3.1.4 In the paper making industry, the PAM is used to improve the retention rate of the fillers and the pigment, which is to reduce the loss of the raw materials and to reduce the pollution to the environment. The PAM can also to improve the strength of the paper including the dry strength and the wet strength. Besides, the use of the PAM can also improve the paper tearing rate and the porous rate, which can improve the optical performance and the printing performance. The PAM could be used in the packaging paper to the foodstuff and the tea.
3.1.5 The PAM can be used in other industries. In the foodstuff industry, it is used to the clarification of the cane juice and the sugar floatation extraction in the cane sugar production and in the beet sugar production; it is used in the liquid flocculation industry of the enzyme preparation fermentation. It is used in the recovery of the protein feed, the recovered protein powder has the stable quality and good performance, and has no adverse effect to the chicken survival rate increase, the weight increase and the egg laying rate. The PAM is also widely used in many other fields such as the synthetic resin coating, the construction grouting materials, the water plugging, the building material industry, the improvement to the concrete quality, the adhesives to the construction industry, the caulking and repair water shutoff agent, the soil improvement agent, the electroplating industry, the printing and dyeing industry etc.
3.2 The cationic PAM
The cationic PAM shows the cationic characteristics in the acidic medium or in the alkaline medium, it is usually has lower molecular weight than the anionic PAM or the nonionic PAM, its performance in the sewage clarification is mainly achieved by the charge neutralization. This function of this type of cationic flocculant is to flocculate the particles with the negative charge, along with the turbidity removal function and the decoloring function. In the treatment of the waste water from the factories such as the alcohol factory, the monosodium glutamate factory, the sugar factory, the meat factory, the beverage factory and the printing and dyeing plant, the treatment effect by using the cationic PAM will be several times or dozens of times higher than the use of the anionic PAM and the nonionic PAM, because these types of waste water are generally with the negative charge.
The cationic PAM is suitable for the specific sludge dewatering machines such as the high speed centrifuge, the sludge filter press, the plate and frame filter press etc. It figures the fast floc forming, the larger floc mass, the higher extrusion and shear resistance of the flocs, the better floc formation and the easier stripping fromt eh filter cloth etc. Therefore, the cationic PAM can help to achieve the higher dehydration rate, the less dosage and the lower filter cake moisture content etc, it can greatly reduce the user’s cost. The cationic PAM can also be used in the other liquid like the hydrochloric acid and the medium sulfuric acid, it is used to separate and purify the suspending substance in the liquids.
The cationic PAM is widely used in the sludge dewatering treatment in the city sewage treatment plant, the beer factory, the foodstuff factory, the leather factory, the paper making factory, the petrochemical plant, the oilfield, the metallurgy, the chemical industry and the cosmetic industry etc.