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- The main applications of polyacrylamide(PAM,FLOCCULANT)
Polyacrylamide and Xanthan gum of broader commercial use
Polyacrylamides are water-soluble polymers with molecular weights ranging between 104 and 12x106 values. Its aqueous solution is not corrosive to steel and produce high viscosities at low concentrations the product is sensitive to the presence of mineral salts and can not stand mechanical stresses. In addition to its application in the oil industry, polyacrylamides have multiple uses such as a flocculant in the treatment of black water, mineral separation and clarification of cane juice industry. Also it is very useful in the textile industry, paper industry and others such as pharmaceutical, food and agriculture.
Manufacturing: polyacrylamide is basically a product having initial feedstock natural gas, of which the propylene and ammonia is obtained by conventional petrochemical processes. These products obtained by a reaction with oxygen at a temperature between 425 and 510 ° C produce acetonitrile, which will result in the acrylamide, and to see to this polyacrylamide. Polyacrylamides are available in solid, liquid, being the most suitable for manufacturing solid form, due to their advantages of portability, lower risk of product contamination and increased storage period.
The acrylamide is the basic compound for the production of polymers and for obtaining both sulfuric acid, urea and sodium hydroxide, which are produced locally, and potassium persulfate and sodium bisulfite coming additionally requires abroad.
Xanthan gum is a polysaccharide, having as salient features stability against mineral salts, and its resistance to mechanical stress. The molecular weight of this polymer typically between 1 and 3 million, however, It can form molecular associates that can reach 10 million. It is a highly pseudoplastic and moderately resistant to temperature compound. It has various applications in the oil industry in the recovery of crude oil, and drilling fluids as in other industries, such as food, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics.
Manufacturing: The xanthan gum is a product of metabolism of carbohydrates by a microorganism Xanthomonas, the most effective range of polysaccharide production is Xanthomonas campestris.
They are microorganisms of the type cited above, as well as carbohydrate sources needed as raw material for processing, such as glucose, sugar cane or beet, molasses, vinasse, oatmeal, cereals and rice.
The rate of fermentation of rice flour glucose is high, so use this component as a nutrient for organisms, but may well serve another product that was economically better off than rice or simply feasible utilization.
The stages comprising the manufacturing process and the requirements of the main raw material. In phase D rice flour mixed with water to produce the hydrolysis of rice starch, by adding the a-amylase and amyloglucosidase enzymes, gradually adjusting the pH to a value of 4.5. Then proceed to the preparation of the substrate and microorganic inoculation culture for obtaining fermented broth. The final stage is for the precipitation, separation and drying.