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Discussion on the production and application of Polyacrylamide in China
Polyacrylamide is also called Poly (acrylamide), referred to as PAM, it is a kind of organic polymer of the status quo, but also a kind of polymer water treatment flocculant products. It can the suspended particles in water adsorption, and establish a link between the particles of bridge, fine particles capable of forming larger flocs, and accelerate the speed of the precipitation, the process we call for flocculation, and as a water treatment flocculant must be to choose the better flocculation effect of PAM, so it has been widely used in wastewater treatment. As polyacrylamide storage place must be in a cool dry environment, because it has the following characteristics: the flocculation, it can make the suspended material by charge neutralization, flocculation effect; second, adhesion, which is caused by physical and chemical effects of adhesive role; third, thickening, which is had thickening function under neutral and acidic conditions, and if the pH value is to more than 10 in PAM before hydrolysis.
Polyacrylamide is a polymer of high molecular weight, also it is an important water solution polymer, flocculation, thickening, shear resistance, resistance drop and dispersion, and some other valuable properties and the performance with the corresponding ions of different derivative the heavy and light, so it was widely used. Specific application department: production, processing, coal, metallurgy, chemical industry, paper making, sugar refining, pharmaceutical, environmental protection, building materials and agricultural production. However, in the application of these sectors, we found that the impact effect will be more or less affected by polyacrylamide conditions such as: the use of polyacrylamide flocculation effect will increase, the better, of course if the amount is too much, the effect is not necessarily good, will be relatively low, serious word will become stable the second is the problem of colloid; the relative time of flocculation, was used in organic and inorganic flocculant, its main characteristic is can get maximum floc particles, and the oil droplets agglutination adsorption out, if the speed is too slow or too short, so with the solid particles are flocculant can fully contact. This is not conducive to trapping flocculant colloidal particles, at the same time, the distribution of flocculant concentration will be non-uniform, thus. Flocculant play rang; furthermore, polyacrylamide also to hydrology related, when the water temperature is low, the reaction speed of polyacrylamide can is very slow, the hydrolysis time will longer, treated water will affected and in high viscosity tear effect of flocculants will enable flocs becomes very small; in high temperature is different, its response speed will soon, formed flocs is not large, very small. When using polyacrylamide, we need to pay more attention, so as not to reduce the effect of flocculation.
The production technology of polyacrylamide usually has two kinds, one is chemical method, namely the skeleton copper catalyst production; another biochemical method, it is used in water and biological enzyme as catalyst production. Polyacrylamide technology is new method is a kind of copolymer granular cationic polyacrylamide production, mainly by acrylamide and cationic monomer initiated polymerization was born, and through drying and crushing destroy income products, this point is polymerization reaction liquid additive, mainly with the photosensitizer, polymerization initiated by light triggered. Application of granular cationic polyacrylamide by photoinitiated polymerization process it is easier to control, the reaction premise is relatively relaxed, the concentration of the mixed monomer can be adjusted in a wide range; at the same time, the molecular weight of the polymerization chain regulating agent can also add to the effective control of product so, the better quality of the products, the amount of molecules more; of course in the production of polyacrylamide technology, we can not just casually join agent, to prevent the problems of viscosity degradation of polymer in the later drying process, we should better improve the water solubility and stability, so that products can be in the corresponding period of time as for the water is completely dissolved, the solution should be placed at room temperature for a month and a half after going bad is good, so the ultimate product of the residual monomer will decrease, So the efficiency of production will be high, the cost will be low, the security will be correspondingly high and to achieve the effect of green environmental protection, which is the international attention of water soluble polymer production process technology. And the technology of water and raw material specifications is quite high, the main is polymerization system cannot contain very high valence metal ion impurities. And this technique is applicable to producing cationic, anionic, nonionic and amphoteric ultrahigh molecular weight polyacrylamide and other of the polymer etc.. It is mainly by the addition of small amounts of functional copolymer monomer to improve polyacrylamide resistance to salt and heat resistance.
With the rapid development of the industrialization of our country, the application scope of PAM has been gradually expanded, the demand is also more and more. PAM products are mainly water solution colloid, powder and emulsion of three formulations, each with a different ion type products, can be divided into three types of non - ionic, cationic and anionic. And now, PAM products in the amount of our country is the most obvious areas are fields, second is from the aspect of water treatment and paper making, then textile, printing and dyeing industry, pharmaceutical industry, agriculture, construction and mining industry aspects. And each aspect has the corresponding application effect, in the petroleum industry, it is mainly in order to enhance the oil recovery, as well as the drilling fluid adjustment agent and used as the additive of fracturing fluid. And water treatment, it is mainly the molecular chain of derivatives, make its have amide and amide has good water soluble and excellent flocculation and adsorption properties, so in the urban sewage, domestic sewage and industrial wastewater treatment has been widely used. However, in these applications, we will discover many factors, so we on the proposed some aspects, for example, reduce flocculant dosage, improving water quality and improve the flocs strength and sedimentation rate. And textile, printing and dyeing industry and agriculture and other many aspects, also found its application, and to understand the effectiveness of it in these aspects in the application. For instance, it is soil structure conditioner is fabric sizing agents and finishing agents.
The relatively small scale of production, production technology is relatively backward, product quality is relatively poor, the industrial structure is not reasonable, repeated low level of imported technology and blind investment, in addition to this and other some problems, such as industrial energy consumption, low output efficiency, environmental pollution is also more serious, destruction of natural resources, the enterprise's technological innovation capability is not strong, management level is not higher. These are the present of our country, only to solve these, in order to better development.