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Application of Polyacrylamide in wastewater treatment and its development prospect
Polyacrylamide PAM is a water-soluble polymer, which is insoluble in most organic solvents, and has good flocculation property. It can reduce the friction between the liquid and the ion. The four types of non ion, anion, cation and the type of the two sexes can be divided into types. Polyacrylamide is mainly used in the purification of water, the processing of pulp and the inner coating, etc.. Along with the development of the technology of polymerization, polyacrylamide has been developed from the initial dry powder (colloid) to the three forms of dry powder, latex and latex. Eighty time to obtain the industrial production of Polyacrylamide Latex products, its development speed is quite fast, in Europe and the United States developed countries, the scale of production has accounted for 70 ~ 80% of the total amount of polyacrylamide. Ninety time development of polyacrylamide micro latex is still in the experimental stage, many technical problems remain to be solved, the research is very active in recent years, can be expected in the near future Polyacrylamide Latex products will achieve industrial production.
Cationic polyacrylamide is the fastest growing variety in the past few years, the annual growth rate of the western developed countries is 5 ~ 10%, has accounted for more than 60% of total production of polyacrylamide. China's situation is special, anionic polyacrylamide accounted for more than 90% of total production, mainly for oil exploitation, cationic polyacrylamide production is very small, and the production of small scale is also very small, almost no form of a certain scale of production equipment. With the rapid development of water treatment industry, the demand for high speed growth of cationic polyacrylamide is believed to have a greater development in China. Cationic polyacrylamide mainly comprises of the following three types: low molecular weight poly amine, acrylamide and cationic monomers and nonionic polyacrylamide modified. Polyamines including polyethyleneimine polyethylene imidazole and amine surface chlorohydrin condensates and improve product, this kind of product is charge density high, but molecular weight low, mainly for the function of papermaking additives, oil and cosmetics industry, it is rarely used for sludge dewatering. Acrylamide and cationic monomer copolymerization cationic polymer production is the largest, cationic monomer mainly refers to (DMC) and two DMDAC (), P (DMC - AM) product molecular weight is higher, cationic polyacrylamide almost all belong to this kind of structure, China is used for sludge dewatering of powdered cationic polyacrylamide also belong to this kind, the product molecular weight 6000000 ~ 30, the main problem is that DMC need to import, expensive, resulting in higher production costs. For the P (am - DMDAC), due to the DMDAC monomer steric hindrance of the larger, the polymerization activity and it was very difficult for preparing molecular weight and cationic degree of satisfactory products, so for sludge dewatering, and DMDAC highly absorbent, this kind of product usually for liquid. Non ionic polyacrylamide amide radicals with a variety of reagents, which reacts with formaldehyde and dimethylamine can be the formation of tertiary amine polymer structure further season generate amine quaternary ammonium salt. Because the viscosity of polyacrylamide aqueous solution is very large, usually 8000000 ~ 600 molecular weight of 2% concentration has been very sticky, which brings difficulty to the water solution reaction, because the concentration of PAM is very low, resulting in the cationic degree is usually not more than 10% and the residual formaldehyde concentration is higher. For the sewage treatment plant in the sewage treatment plant at the county level of organic matter, the low cost of non - ionic polyacrylamide Mannich denaturing products are applicable.
Although China is the world's largest polyacrylamide consumption area, but in our country, the application of polyacrylamide and other countries in the world have great differences. At present, the world's other countries are mainly used in water treatment and paper industry, while the application of Polyacrylamide in China mainly concentrated in the oil extraction industry. According to China's polypropylene market investment analysis and forecast report released by the investment adviser, 2010-2015, China, in China, polyacrylamide as the three oil displacement agent, applied to the oil industry, the proportion of the total consumption of about 60%. Due to the large proportion of polyacrylamide used in oil exploitation industry in China, the demand of oil increases with the increase of the domestic economy, which will stimulate the growth of the demand for oil. Moreover, due to the rapid economic growth, industrialization and urbanization brought about by the high pollution problem is gradually highlighted, will promote the development of water treatment and other environmental protection industry, thus increasing the demand for polyacrylamide. Coupled with the development of domestic paper, textile, coal, mining, metallurgy and other related industries are relatively stable, but also conducive to the development of polyacrylamide application space, the future market capacity of China's polyacrylamide will gradually increase. In addition, the investment adviser Chi Chang pointed out that polyacrylamide is consistent with the chemical industry "Eleventh Five Year" of the outline for the development of new products, belongs to the industrial structure adjustment to encourage industry. Among them, cationic polyacrylamide is the State encourages the development of environmentally friendly products, and anionic polyacrylamide is in line with national energy strategy, improve the oil recovery rate of important products. Chang Yizhi believes that the relevant national policy support will also give a good opportunity for development of polyacrylamide, so as to expand the market capacity of polyacrylamide. For example, the former State Environmental Protection Administration, the national environmental protection "five eleven" plan, by 2010, all cities have to build sewage treatment facilities, urban sewage treatment capacity of five tons / day, which will increase the demand for water treatment in the field of water treatment, and in 2010, China's crude oil recovery rate to remain at around 1.93, crude oil and natural gas production reached 32% tons and 92000000000 cubic meters, which will increase the consumption of propylene.