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- The main applications of polyacrylamide(PAM,FLOCCULANT)
Application of Polyacrylamide in the oilfield.
In the oil exploitation of additive polyacrylamide PAM, can be used for many purposes, such as drilling fluid, fracturing fluid, and polymer flooding to enhance oil recovery.
One, used as drilling fluid additive of drilling fluid for drilling mud performance adjustment agent in oil. The role of PAM is to adjust the drilling fluid rheology, the cuttings carrying, favorable lubricating bit, drilling. In addition, but also can greatly reduce the accident, reduce equipment wear and tear, and can prevent the occurrence of leakage and collapse, the hole diameter of rules. Often used in this context is partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide, polyacrylamide, which is composed of PAM or polyacrylonitrile hydrolysis and.
Two, used for polymer flooding in the various methods to improve oil recovery, occupies an important position in polymer flooding technology. The polymer is the role of regulating the rheology of injection water, increase the driving fluid viscosity, improve the efficiency of water flooding, reduce the water phase permeability formation, so that water and oil can flow forward uniformly. Polymer flooding is by adding a certain amount of Polyacrylamide in water injection, to increase the viscosity of water injection, improving water oil mobility ratio. The adsorption of poly acrylamide formation, molecular trapping effect, and reduce the high permeability layer, or high water flooded layer, permeability, increase the flow resistance of water injection in low permeability layer, low water absorption or without water flooded layer increases, expanding the scope of injected water in the reservoir plane the vertical water and reservoir thickness, thereby expanding the volume of water, the water flooding of unused oil displacement, attain the goal of improving oil recovery.
Three, used as a blocking agent and profile control agent of oil - water is a universal problem in oilfield development, especially the long-term water flooding development in old oilfield. Because of the reservoir heterogeneity and oil and water viscosity differences, resulting in water injection well and production well along the high permeability layer or crack onrush and fingering, resulting in production wells premature flooding, declining oil production, water cut rising. The injected water is easy to enter the high permeability zone and low permeability zone around or cracks, reduce the sweep efficiency of the injected water, resulting in the producing degree of low permeability reservoirs with low or even no use. China's oil is widely used in water flooding, the water cut has reached 90%, of which there are a lot of oilfield water has reached more than 98%. At present, using polyacrylamide as the representative of the water soluble polymer is the use of domestic and foreign water plugging material, the most extensive and most effective. The basic principle of profile control and water shutoff is: adding cross-linking agent of polyacrylamide solution in certain concentration, the high valence metal ion crosslinking agent in the polynuclear olation complex ion form and polyacrylamide amide carboxyl groups or the formation of ligand binding.
Four, used for fracturing fluid additives of fracturing is an important stimulation of oil field development of dense layer, its function is to open the channels of rock, let the oil flow. Fracturing fluid methylene polyacrylamide cross-linked, the suspended ability has high viscosity, low friction, good preparation has the advantages of convenient operation and low cost, and is widely used.