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- The main applications of polyacrylamide(PAM,FLOCCULANT)
The resolution of many technological problems with the acceleration and increase of efficacy of processes of solid-liquid separation systems require use of synthetic products of a polymeric nature which have, among others, two fundamental properties to provide adequate performance: high molecular weight and ionic (anionic or cationic) in their molecules. This family of products is included in the group known as polyelectrolytes.
These separation processes acquire great importance in such currently essential as water purification (as flocculating agents in the physicochemical treatment and dehydrating agents in the process of drying the sludge), paper manufacture (as retention and drainage agents activities on the bench), or mining and petrochemicals (as aids in separation of solids).
The specific field of water treatment (which speak generically of flocculants) is a high-volume market (now the production capacity of the largest manufacturers totaling more than 100,000 tons / year worldwide) and continuously rising, motivated mainly by the increasing environmental requirements which lead to a continuous increase in Treatment Plants of both urban and industrial wastewater.
By the qualifications of flocculants special features, you can only use a small number of commercially available monomers basis elements manufacture. Of all these, acrylamide has become the last thirty years in the basic unit on which has been based the whole chemistry of these products. In practice, acrylamide, acrylic acid chloride and acryloxy ethyl trimethyl ammonium, synthesized currently more than 95% of existing market flocculants.
Microbiological method microbiological method acrylonitrile, water and immobilized biocatalysts deployment into hydration solution, after separating the spent catalyst catalytic reaction can be obtained acrylamide product. Compared with the traditional legal copper-catalyzed water, its features are: reaction at normal temperature and pressure, the device is simple, safe operation; high-way conversion rate, without separation and recovery of unreacted acrylonitrile; specificity of the enzyme to make high selectivity No side effects. When using J-1 strain, the reaction temperature is 5-15 ℃, PH value of 7-8, the reaction zone acrylonitrile concentration of 1% -2%. Acrylonitrile conversion was 99.99%, the selectivity of 99.98% acrylamide, an acrylamide reactor outlet concentration close to 50%; the amount of inactivated enzyme catalyst is discharged outside of the system is less than 0.1% of the product; without copper separation section, without ion exchange processing, the separation and purification operations greatly simplified; high product concentration, without mention rich operation, the whole process is simple, less investment in equipment, high production cost, which will help small-scale production.